Selection of various foods in relation to season and market condition.


Selection of various foods in relation to season and market condition.

The types of food you select depends on:

1. The money you have

2. Your nutritional needs and

3. The effect of advertisements

Now let us examine each of these factors and see how they influence our selection or choice of food!

The money you have:

The more money you have the more foods you can buy and the greater your choice. People who have a lot of money can afford a variety of meals and can eat away from home. People with small incomes have a limited choice and it becomes a hard task to buy enough food to meet family needs.

Likes and dislikes:

Foods are normally disliked because of their colour, flavour and texture. Sometimes they are new and have never been tried. They might not look attractive. The food is associated with some ill feeling or the way it is cooked is not appealing.


Another great influence on food choice is advertisement. Advertisements have a way of persuading people to make choices. Food manufacturers and shops advertise their products through television, radio, magazines, newspapers, posters and leaflets.

Good adverts are decent, honest and truthful.

They do not mislead the public about a product.

They show a sense of responsibility to people.

They conform to fair competition behaviour different manufacturers and businesses.

Nutritional needs:

Your food choice will also depend on your need for food. Everyone has a biological need for food. It is essential for life without food one becomes weak and ill. People vary in the amount of food they need for reasons like health, age and activity.

Your choice of food will therefore depend on each of these factors. Your nutrition knowledge helps you to choose food that provides the necessary nutrients to meet your needs.

Food Purchasing

Food purchasing can be a boring or interesting adventure depending on one’s approach to it. To make food purchasing interesting you have to know much about the market place and ways in which you can make the most out of your food budget.

Now let us look at some of the things you can do to avoid waste of your time and money when purchasing food.

First of all you need to know the factors that determine the cost of the things you want to purchase. 

Production cost:

This is the amount of money used to produce the item. In the case of food, the production cost will include the money spent on cleaning the land, sowing the seeds, harvesting and processing. The final cost of a product is determined by this amount plus others like transportation cost, profit and handling charges.

The season:

Seasonal differences in the cost of food occur frequently. Food items always cost less when they are in season because they are plenty and so the supply becomes high. When market supply of a commodity becomes high the price of the commodity falls. Food items that are out of season become scarce and therefore their prices are higher.

Demand for item:

Usually when many people want a certain item, its price increases.


These are ways in which manufacturers and sellers tell us they have certain goods and services for sale. Advertisements cost money. The cost of advertising a product is added to the production cost to make up the price of a product. The more the advertisement the higher the cost of the product.

Amount of processing:

Processing adds value to products and it costs money. Foods that are processed to provide conveniences cost more than unprocessed ones.

Food Budget

Factors that determine the amount of money we spend on food.

For most people food budget is one of the largest expenses.Careful planning and shopping can result in substantial savings. Normally if you are rich you tend to spend more money on food and if you are poor you spend less.

Your skills personal preferences.

Your values and your lifestyle will all determine your food selection and hence the money you spend buying food.

The skill of bargaining for example would help you to buy goods at the cheapest possible cost.

Buying foods in season and in bulk also helps to cut down cost.

Buying food from farm gates instead of from retailers also cuts cost. When you buy food, buy them from places where prices are lower and where food sold is of good quality. Buy food from places that are clean and where food is well stored.

Forms in which food is sold

Foods are sold in many forms. The form you buy is determined by the storage facilities you have, how much convenience you need and what you want to use the food for.

Fresh foods

Fresh foods provide most nutrients since processing may destroy the nutrients. Fresh foods are natural and do not require fortification or processing. They therefore cost less. How ever, because they are fresh they spoil fast.

Frozen foods

Frozen foods are much nearer to fresh foods as far as nutrient content is concerned. Freezing prevents the action of enzymes and microorganisms. Microorganisms are minute organisms which we can not see but which can be very harmful to us and can spoil our food. Frozen foods must be stored in the freezer in useable quantities. Remember that when you thaw a frozen food completely it must be used immediately to avoid spoilage. Thawed foods should not be refrozen.

Dried foods

Dried foods have their moisture removed. Some dried foods like milk powder, can be reconstituted by adding water. Dried foods do not require refrigeration. They are light in weight and take up les storage space.

Canned foods

Canned foods are convenient to use. They will not spoil as long as the can is not punched. Canned foods should be stored in cool dry places. They do not have the taste of freshly cooked foods. They are much more expensive than foods in other forms. They have long shelf life that is they last longer. Unless canned foods are fortified with nutrients they loose most of their nutrient content.

Tips for shopping

1. When buying food, choose the form that you can easily handle and which you can afford. Make a shopping list so that you buy the things you need without wasting time.

2.Choose the type and location of market appropriate to your needs.

3.Compare prices and quality of commodity before you buy.

4.Buy foods in bulk if you have storage facilities and money. It is cheaper.

 5.Do not shop when you are hungry; it makes you buy more than necessary.

6.Do not take children along when you go shopping; they make you buy unnecessary things.

 7.Avoid impulse buying, that is buying things you did not plan for.

8.When you buy canned or packaged foods, look out for the expiry date or ‘use by’ date. It is the last day a product is considered fresh. A food may still be safe to eat after this date but the taste and nutrient quality may not be good.


Do not buy processed foods when the following signs are seen:-

1. Cans are bulging or dented because they may cause food poisoning

2. Rusty can may contain spoiled food

3. Frozen food packages that are soft or soggy may have thawed for a long time and May be spoiling

4. Refrozen foods, this can be detected as stained packages or crystallized products

5. Opened or damaged packages

6. Moldy or coloured dried foods

7. Meat or fish that has dull or slimy surface

Points to bear in mind when purchasing some food commodities:

Fruits and vegetables

High quality fruits and vegetables are the ones that are ripe, crisp, fine and free from bruises. Nutrients values of fruits and vegetables decrease over a period therefore you should try to buy those that are fresh. Vegetables will usually wither when kept in the sun or kept for too long.

Starchy roots and plantain

These foods form the staple food in many Ghanaian homes. They are relatively cheap but do not have good keeping quality. They can be used for a variety of food products. They are sold in fresh or dried and powdered forms. Examples of such foods are plantain cassava, yam, cocoyam, water yam, potato and taro.When purchasing these foods care must be taken so that only good quality foods are bought. Roots should be free from bruises since this would make them rot quickly. They must be firm to touch. Softness in roots is a sign of spoilage. They must not start sprouting. Ripped plantain should not have black spots on the skin.

Animal and animal products

Foods in this group are very expensive and they spoil very quickly. The most expensive animal foods are not necessarily the most nutritious. If you have limited resource you can still get good quality protein from cheap sources such as snails, crabs, sprats and anchovies. Bone in beef is just as nutritious as bone less beef.When buying animal foods, quality and safety are very important consideration. You can tell the quality of animal products as follows:- Meat should have a deep red colour with white or creamy fat. Signs of poor quality are very dark brown or green colour and yellow fat. When the meat is greenish and smells bad it is of poor quality and not safe for eating. Poultry should have a meaty body with meaty legs and breasts. The skin should not have any discoloration Fish should have firm flesh and shiny skin with a lot of tightly clinging scales. It must have bright and clear eyes and red shiny gills. Disagreeable colour, flesh that leaves a dent when pressed and dry skin are signs of spoilage.

Before I leave this topic, let me add that tenderness of meat and poultry depend on the age of the animal and the part of animal bought. The nutritive value is, however, not affected by these.


Eggs may have white or brown shells. The nutritive value is the same. Eggs can be bought fresh or dried.

When buying eggs, look for shells that are rough and not shiny. Test for freshness by putting it in a jar of salt water. When it floats the eggs is stale. Buy eggs that are clean and not cracked.


Milk is sold in liquid or powdered form. Your choice will depend on what you want to use it for and the storage facility you have. Milk can be bought fresh. Its keeping quality is not good especially outside the refrigerator. When a milk tin is opened and used the remaining milk should be poured out of the tin and kept in the refrigerator or a cool dry place, well covered.


Legumes include groundnuts, cowpeas and soya beans. Legumes are sold shelled or unshelled. They are sold dry or canned.When buying legumes you must buy the ones that are not infested with weevils. Also they must not be mouldy. It is better to make your own groundnut paste than to buy from the market. Often groundnut paste is adulterated before it is sold in the market.


Cereals are normally sold in grains or in powdered form or as breakfast cereal.

When buying cereals avoid the ones that have weevils or have grown moulds. Mouldy cereals are not good for consumption. Make your own corn dough instead of buying from the market.

Seven Practical Tips For Setting Fitness Goals


Staying motivated in the realm of fitness and exercise is all about progression. To make progress, you need to set yourself goals. For most people, goals are what keep them inspired and driven. Here are seven essential tips for setting your own great fitness goals.

  1. Be sure the goal is reasonable. If you set a bar that’s too high for yourself, you are only setting yourself up for disappointment. Falling short of a goal is dispiriting. You don’t want something that’s supposed to motivate you to have the opposite effect. So, be realistic about your abilities and choose a goal that’s practical.
  1. Challenge yourself. On the flip side of the coin, you also don’t want to go to easy on yourself. There’s no point in a goal that won’t really test you. You won’t feel that you have truly accomplished anything if you reach your goal too easily. While you should generally be able to reach your goals, the occasional failure is proof you are truly challenging yourself.
  1. Be specific. Vague goals are nearly worthless. If all you want is to be stronger, faster, or be in better shape, then you haven’t set a genuine benchmark for yourself. Your goal should be concrete and (if possible) measurable so that you really know what you are working towards achieving. For example, aim to run a mile in a specific time, lift a certain amount of weight, or reach a certain body fat percentage.
  1. Make a training plan. The goal you are trying to reach is the outcome — but that still leaves the question of how you will actually achieve that outcome. You need a process by which you will succeed — that’s where your training plan comes in. If you aren’t sure how to best reach your goal, do some research or follow a plan created by a fitness expert.
  1. Choose a time frame. If your goal isn’t at all time-bound, you won’t feel any real pressure towards actually achieving it. You don’t necessarily have to look at your time frame as a hard deadline — but it is important to have some kind of idea of when you are aiming to reach your goal.
  1. Set smaller goals. A major goal can be intimidating — where to even begin? For this reason it’s wise to have one large, overarching goal that can then be divided into smaller goals accomplishable in a short period. Try to have goals you are aiming towards each day and each week. Reaching these small goals will boost your motivation.
  1. Track your progress. Your goal probably won’t help much if you don’t monitor your performance. Tracking progress is how you hold yourself accountable. Your smaller daily and weekly goals can be useful in tracking your progress. Using apps or creating an exercise log are also useful.
  As in just about every area of life, success in the world of exercise depends upon knowing how to set and reach goals. Be sure not to overlook or forget the importance of this key aspect of fitness.

The Benefits of Teaching Your Children How to Cook


All children should learn how to cook. There are several reasons why this is an important life skill to learn and continue to develop. When children are young, there is a concern regarding the use of heat from the stove or oven. You are very wise in that concern. However, remember not all food preparation uses heat. Young children are curious and eager for knowledge. Feed that curiosity and give them the knowledge that will benefit them for years to come.


Your child will grow up whether you want them to or not (sorry!). To help them maintain a healthy diet once they have moved away from home, teach them to prepare healthy meals. This is a good time to help them create their very own cookbook. Encourage them to add recipes that they enjoy to their cookbook. Many children that move away from home to go to college or begin their new jobs, starting a life of their own will turn to eating very unhealthy fast foods simply because they do not know how to cook.


The time spent in the kitchen cooking with your child not only helps them to develop essential life skills, it also strengthens the bonds between you and that child.  Learning to cook as a child offers the ability to acquire and develop so many more essential life skills than just cooking. There are instructions on measuring, division, addition, subtraction, counting, fractions, weights and measures, and science. Reading and writing skills are developed or improved with reading of the recipes and writing them for their very own cookbook.


Knowing how to prepare great meals also boosts your child’s confidence. Confidence in their ability to cook can also help to improve their self-esteem. They exhibit a lot of pride serving the foods they cooked themselves. By having the skills of cooking great food the child, will have the confidence perhaps to invite newly made acquaintances and friends over for a dinner once they move to a place of their own? Hosting dinners and events helps to develop organizational and social skills.


Sadly, another reason to teach your child to cook, especially the boys would be to prevent them from jumping into a relationship or marriage simply to have someone to cook and clean for them. It does seem silly ever to believe that they might do this, but it does happen.


Your child can begin learning when they are a toddler. Measuring our ingredients prior to beginning to cook will allow your child to add the ingredient as you need them. Start with the dry ingredients such as those for making cookies or cakes. This gives them a sense of pride as they watch them bake and see others enjoy their creations. As your child grows and masters each new skill, give praise and then add to their skill set. When you begin to teach them at a young age, by the time they do grow up and move away, they will have the skills necessary to navigate the new life they are beginning by themselves.

Pizza Lettuce Wraps

Recipe! Ingredients                                       2 Table Spoons hoisin sauce 1 Table Spoon Soya Sauce 1 Table Spoon Chili Sauce 1 Tea Spoon Brown Sugar 1 Tea Spoon Garlic Chopped 1 Tea Spoon Ginger Chopped Lettuce Leaves Mozzarella Cheese Cheddar Cheese Olives Oregano Leaves Oil as Required Half Cup Green Onions 1 Onion Chopped 250 grams of chicken cubes   Prepare Sauce: Mix hoisin sauce, Soya Sauce, Chili Sauce, Brown Sugar, Garlic, Ginger.   Chicken Preparation: Stir the chicken in oil add green onions, onions and the prepared sauce to it.   Assembling: Take fresh lettuce leaves put 2-3 tablespoon of prepared chicken spread mozzarella and Cheddar cheese over it. Sprinkle oregano Leaves on it and top it with olives.   Steam the chicken 3 minutes each and they are ready to serve.    

Food Guide Pyramid

  • Food Guide Pyramid:- Food guides as the food guide pyramid (USDA) are tools used for teaching complex scientific information in a consumer friendly way. The governments use pictures and graphs to communicate dietary guidance messages. Message:- The food pyramid guide gives a simple and complete message to what one needs to eat in a day. It advocates balance of nutrients and reduction of fat. It provides guidance to improving overall health and weight management. Foods are divided into five distinct “food groups” and eating a given number of servings from each group is recommended. The base of pyramid is bread, cereal, rice and pasta group. It is the base so the biggest. The next step up is the vegetable and fruit group which provides vitamin A, ascorbic acid, folate, and fiber as well as potassium. This is the second biggest group. Next comes milk, yogurt, and cheese group which provides calcium, protein, vitamin A and D. Along with milk group is the meat, fish dry beans, eggs and nuts group. This group provides iron, zinc, B vitamins and proteins. The tip of the pyramid is fats, oils, and sweets. These foods need to be consumed sparingly as they are source of calories with almost no other nutrients. Each of the food groups provide some of the nutrients, but not all the nutrients required by the body. Foods found in one group cannot replace foods in another group. All the five groups are important in order to make the diet balanced. Using Food Guide Pyramid:-
  • Choose the number of servings required. The pyramid gives a range of servings and the number of servings required by an individual depends on the number of Calories required. Everyone should make an effort to take at least the minimum servings each group.
  • The amount that counts as serving is given below: 1 slice of bread, 1 ounce of read-to-eat cereal, 1& ½ cup of cooked cereal, rice or pasta.
  • 1 cup of raw leafy vegetables; 1& 1/2 cup of other vegetables; cooked or chopped raw vegetables; ¾ cup of vegetable juice.
  • 1& ½ cup of chopped, cooked, or canned fruit; 1&3/4 cup of fruit juice.
  • 1 cup of milk or yogurt 1-1&1/2 ounces of natural cheese; 1 2 ounces of processes cheese.
  • Include plant foods that are good sources of protein such as beans, legumes and nuts several times a week.
  • Include a dark green leafy vegetable as a source of vitamin A and a good source of vitamin C such as citrus fruit daily.
  • Include milk and products to provide calcium.
  • Choose whole grain cereals, breads, and rice as they are good source of fiber and vitamin E.
  • Include some plant oils daily and fish once or twice a week to include unsaturated fatty acids in the diet.

Bacon And Sausage Egg Casserole

  1. Healthy Food Recipes! Bacon And Sausage Egg Casserole Ingredients:
100g Brown Sausage 100g chopped bacon 1 chopped onion 1 red pepper chopped 1 green pepper chopped Salt to taste Black pepper to taste 1 cup regular potatoes boiled 2 table spoon butter 6 eggs 2 table spoon milk Fresh basil Cheese to cover the top   Assembling and Cooking Process: In a pan add chopped sausages and bacon! Stir them evenly, the fat from the sausages and bacon will sit on the pan from that from pan and stir again evenly. Once the sausages and bacon are stried evenly add chopped onions to the pan and both red and green pepper cut into bite sized pieces. Season the mixture with salt and black pepper. Add in the boiled potatoes cut into cubes. Add butter cubes to the potatoes to give extra golden colour on the potatoes. Make the surface of your pan even and nice cover the pan with lid and steam off the mixture. In a separate bowl break 6 eggs and hand beat them with milk evenly to give it a nice soft texture. Season the eggs with salt and black pepper now with that add fresh basil to the eggs. Pour in your eggs to the sausages and bacon mixture add a generous amount of cheese for the eggs to seep in completely. Cover your man and baked the mixture for about 20 minutes at 350° in your oven!   Dish out your sausage and bacon mixture and serve with sour cream!