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Selection of various foods in relation to season and market condition.


Selection of various foods in relation to season and market condition.

The types of food you select depends on:

1. The money you have

2. Your nutritional needs and

3. The effect of advertisements

Now let us examine each of these factors and see how they influence our selection or choice of food!

The money you have:

The more money you have the more foods you can buy and the greater your choice. People who have a lot of money can afford a variety of meals and can eat away from home. People with small incomes have a limited choice and it becomes a hard task to buy enough food to meet family needs.

Likes and dislikes:

Foods are normally disliked because of their colour, flavour and texture. Sometimes they are new and have never been tried. They might not look attractive. The food is associated with some ill feeling or the way it is cooked is not appealing.


Another great influence on food choice is advertisement. Advertisements have a way of persuading people to make choices. Food manufacturers and shops advertise their products through television, radio, magazines, newspapers, posters and leaflets.

Good adverts are decent, honest and truthful.

They do not mislead the public about a product.

They show a sense of responsibility to people.

They conform to fair competition behaviour different manufacturers and businesses.

Nutritional needs:

Your food choice will also depend on your need for food. Everyone has a biological need for food. It is essential for life without food one becomes weak and ill. People vary in the amount of food they need for reasons like health, age and activity.

Your choice of food will therefore depend on each of these factors. Your nutrition knowledge helps you to choose food that provides the necessary nutrients to meet your needs.

Food Purchasing

Food purchasing can be a boring or interesting adventure depending on one’s approach to it. To make food purchasing interesting you have to know much about the market place and ways in which you can make the most out of your food budget.

Now let us look at some of the things you can do to avoid waste of your time and money when purchasing food.

First of all you need to know the factors that determine the cost of the things you want to purchase. 

Production cost:

This is the amount of money used to produce the item. In the case of food, the production cost will include the money spent on cleaning the land, sowing the seeds, harvesting and processing. The final cost of a product is determined by this amount plus others like transportation cost, profit and handling charges.

The season:

Seasonal differences in the cost of food occur frequently. Food items always cost less when they are in season because they are plenty and so the supply becomes high. When market supply of a commodity becomes high the price of the commodity falls. Food items that are out of season become scarce and therefore their prices are higher.

Demand for item:

Usually when many people want a certain item, its price increases.


These are ways in which manufacturers and sellers tell us they have certain goods and services for sale. Advertisements cost money. The cost of advertising a product is added to the production cost to make up the price of a product. The more the advertisement the higher the cost of the product.

Amount of processing:

Processing adds value to products and it costs money. Foods that are processed to provide conveniences cost more than unprocessed ones.

Food Budget

Factors that determine the amount of money we spend on food.

For most people food budget is one of the largest expenses.Careful planning and shopping can result in substantial savings. Normally if you are rich you tend to spend more money on food and if you are poor you spend less.

Your skills personal preferences.

Your values and your lifestyle will all determine your food selection and hence the money you spend buying food.

The skill of bargaining for example would help you to buy goods at the cheapest possible cost.

Buying foods in season and in bulk also helps to cut down cost.

Buying food from farm gates instead of from retailers also cuts cost. When you buy food, buy them from places where prices are lower and where food sold is of good quality. Buy food from places that are clean and where food is well stored.

Forms in which food is sold

Foods are sold in many forms. The form you buy is determined by the storage facilities you have, how much convenience you need and what you want to use the food for.

Fresh foods

Fresh foods provide most nutrients since processing may destroy the nutrients. Fresh foods are natural and do not require fortification or processing. They therefore cost less. How ever, because they are fresh they spoil fast.

Frozen foods

Frozen foods are much nearer to fresh foods as far as nutrient content is concerned. Freezing prevents the action of enzymes and microorganisms. Microorganisms are minute organisms which we can not see but which can be very harmful to us and can spoil our food. Frozen foods must be stored in the freezer in useable quantities. Remember that when you thaw a frozen food completely it must be used immediately to avoid spoilage. Thawed foods should not be refrozen.

Dried foods

Dried foods have their moisture removed. Some dried foods like milk powder, can be reconstituted by adding water. Dried foods do not require refrigeration. They are light in weight and take up les storage space.

Canned foods

Canned foods are convenient to use. They will not spoil as long as the can is not punched. Canned foods should be stored in cool dry places. They do not have the taste of freshly cooked foods. They are much more expensive than foods in other forms. They have long shelf life that is they last longer. Unless canned foods are fortified with nutrients they loose most of their nutrient content.

Tips for shopping

1. When buying food, choose the form that you can easily handle and which you can afford. Make a shopping list so that you buy the things you need without wasting time.

2.Choose the type and location of market appropriate to your needs.

3.Compare prices and quality of commodity before you buy.

4.Buy foods in bulk if you have storage facilities and money. It is cheaper.

 5.Do not shop when you are hungry; it makes you buy more than necessary.

6.Do not take children along when you go shopping; they make you buy unnecessary things.

 7.Avoid impulse buying, that is buying things you did not plan for.

8.When you buy canned or packaged foods, look out for the expiry date or ‘use by’ date. It is the last day a product is considered fresh. A food may still be safe to eat after this date but the taste and nutrient quality may not be good.


Do not buy processed foods when the following signs are seen:-

1. Cans are bulging or dented because they may cause food poisoning

2. Rusty can may contain spoiled food

3. Frozen food packages that are soft or soggy may have thawed for a long time and May be spoiling

4. Refrozen foods, this can be detected as stained packages or crystallized products

5. Opened or damaged packages

6. Moldy or coloured dried foods

7. Meat or fish that has dull or slimy surface

Points to bear in mind when purchasing some food commodities:

Fruits and vegetables

High quality fruits and vegetables are the ones that are ripe, crisp, fine and free from bruises. Nutrients values of fruits and vegetables decrease over a period therefore you should try to buy those that are fresh. Vegetables will usually wither when kept in the sun or kept for too long.

Starchy roots and plantain

These foods form the staple food in many Ghanaian homes. They are relatively cheap but do not have good keeping quality. They can be used for a variety of food products. They are sold in fresh or dried and powdered forms. Examples of such foods are plantain cassava, yam, cocoyam, water yam, potato and taro.When purchasing these foods care must be taken so that only good quality foods are bought. Roots should be free from bruises since this would make them rot quickly. They must be firm to touch. Softness in roots is a sign of spoilage. They must not start sprouting. Ripped plantain should not have black spots on the skin.

Animal and animal products

Foods in this group are very expensive and they spoil very quickly. The most expensive animal foods are not necessarily the most nutritious. If you have limited resource you can still get good quality protein from cheap sources such as snails, crabs, sprats and anchovies. Bone in beef is just as nutritious as bone less beef.When buying animal foods, quality and safety are very important consideration. You can tell the quality of animal products as follows:- Meat should have a deep red colour with white or creamy fat. Signs of poor quality are very dark brown or green colour and yellow fat. When the meat is greenish and smells bad it is of poor quality and not safe for eating. Poultry should have a meaty body with meaty legs and breasts. The skin should not have any discoloration Fish should have firm flesh and shiny skin with a lot of tightly clinging scales. It must have bright and clear eyes and red shiny gills. Disagreeable colour, flesh that leaves a dent when pressed and dry skin are signs of spoilage.

Before I leave this topic, let me add that tenderness of meat and poultry depend on the age of the animal and the part of animal bought. The nutritive value is, however, not affected by these.


Eggs may have white or brown shells. The nutritive value is the same. Eggs can be bought fresh or dried.

When buying eggs, look for shells that are rough and not shiny. Test for freshness by putting it in a jar of salt water. When it floats the eggs is stale. Buy eggs that are clean and not cracked.


Milk is sold in liquid or powdered form. Your choice will depend on what you want to use it for and the storage facility you have. Milk can be bought fresh. Its keeping quality is not good especially outside the refrigerator. When a milk tin is opened and used the remaining milk should be poured out of the tin and kept in the refrigerator or a cool dry place, well covered.


Legumes include groundnuts, cowpeas and soya beans. Legumes are sold shelled or unshelled. They are sold dry or canned.When buying legumes you must buy the ones that are not infested with weevils. Also they must not be mouldy. It is better to make your own groundnut paste than to buy from the market. Often groundnut paste is adulterated before it is sold in the market.


Cereals are normally sold in grains or in powdered form or as breakfast cereal.

When buying cereals avoid the ones that have weevils or have grown moulds. Mouldy cereals are not good for consumption. Make your own corn dough instead of buying from the market.

How to Save Money on Your Groceries When You’ve Been Laid Off


Whether you’ve been recently laid off because of a national crisis, a worldwide economic downturn, or for company-wide problems, you’re likely looking for ways to save some money. Some bills, such as your mortgage and car insurance, can be more difficult to negotiate a different payment for, but you can save a lot of money on groceries if you’re careful about your waste. Plenty of people are interested in saving money on their grocery bill, but it can also be time consuming to clip coupons, and you might prefer to spend that time applying for jobs. There are, however, some simple tips that you can use to lessen your food waste and save money without even pulling out your scissors.


Make a Weekly Menu

Yes, it will initially take some time when you’re making a menu, but you’ll save time later in the week when you don’t even have to think about what you’re going to make for dinner or how you’re going to have to go out to buy more cereal because the kids already ate everything that you had in the pantry. Making a weekly menu can actually save yourself time in the long run, but it can also save you money because you’re less likely to waste food. There are some staples that you probably always have in your refrigerator and last for a long time, such as condiments. Other items can go bad quickly. For instance, fresh vegetables and fruits, thawed meats, and many types of dairy have a shorter shelf life, so you want to make sure that you’re buying food that you’ll be eating soon. Making a meal plan will help you know that you’re not buying items that will begin to go bad within a week that you won’t use within that time period. This can save you a lot of money every month. If you’re not sure if this is actually true for you, write down every time that you throw something out throughout the month, then tally up the amount of money that you wasted because the food went bad.


Make a Plant-Based Meal

If meat gets expensive, why not make at least one or two meals per week that are based on vegetables and fruits? Not only is this a healthy choice, but it can also save you a lot of money. There are some types of meats, such as New York strip steaks and other high-end steaks, that can be very expensive to eat, but you can still have a delicious and even gourmet meal using only vegetables and fruits to cook. A green salad with your favorite toppings can be a delicious change-up from the regular routine. And if you need something to keep you satisfied for longer, you can throw in some chickpeas or another kind of bean.


Plan Meals Around Similar Ingredients

Here’s a trick that the restaurant industry has been using for years: plan your meals around similar ingredients. If you’ve ever taken the time to notice, when you go into a restaurant, if there’s one item on the menu that calls for fresh raspberries or another food that can begin to rot or become moldy quickly, then there are probably at least a couple of other items on the menu that have raspberries as an ingredient, too. A big part of the reason is to reduce the amount of food waste. In your own home, you can use this technique, too. If you want to use fresh snap peas as a side dish for one meal, a couple of nights later you can cook the remaining snap peas and throw them in a stir fry dish or chicken pot pie.


Repurpose Leftovers

Similar to planning meals with similar ingredients, you can also take previous meals and throw them in another dish. For instance, if you’re making a cheesy tater tot dish, throw in the hash browns that you made for breakfast. Cooked eggs are another type of food that is good for using in your new dishes, and this is a time that you can get creative and come up with ideas that are outside of a traditional recipe.


Check Your Food Dates Regularly

If you’ve ever cleaned out your cupboards and found several cans of food that had expired eight months ago, you know how frustrating it can be to throw out $30 worth of food simply because it got shoved to the back of the cabinet. This can happen even more regularly with the food in your refrigerator, which will also go bad much more quickly than canned goods. If you don’t think that it matters, next time you go through your fridge, add up the dollar amount of food that you throw away. And make sure that you’re counting that half a dozen eggs and the half bag of shredded cheese. It all adds up if you’re not eating through food regularly.


To reduce the amount of waste, you should go through your refrigerator at least once a week. Pull forward anything that has been shoved to the back of the fridge. Then, make a list of everything that you need to use in the next couple of days. You should also do this every couple of months with your freezer items and the dry goods in your cabinets.


Freeze Some for Later

One of the biggest struggles that many single people and couples struggle with is how to use the leftovers without eating the same thing for several nights in a row. Let’s face it: most recipes are intended for families. You might also not enjoy cooking every night, so you might prefer to have some meals that are ready to go after quickly reheating them. This is where freezing food for later can save you from the boredom of eating the same thing again and again. Find out which foods still taste great after they’ve been frozen. Then, divvy up that chili or casserole so that you can take it out of the freezer a couple of portions at a time.


Question If Buying Bulk is Actually Saving For You

There are times when buying in bulk can save you several dollars in the long run, but there are also plenty of times when you might actually be losing on the deal. Beyond doing a price comparison of the per-ounce cost, you should also look at whether or not you’ll actually use it all before the food goes bad. For instance, if you buy a restaurant-size can of pizza sauce, you might feel like you’re saving money if five smaller cans costs $7 when the big can only costs $5. But the reality is that it can actually cost you more if you’re unable to use it all. One option is to freeze what you can’t use right away, but there are some items that you might not be able to freeze. For instance, you might think that you’re saving money by purchasing a large tub of salad greens at a warehouse store, but that spring mix is actually a lot more expensive if you only eat half of it before the leaves begin to wilt.


Getting laid off or experiencing financial hardship is always difficult, but many people can save themselves a substantial amount of money by simply being aware of how much food their throwing out. In fact, there are plenty of ways that you can save on food costs, but if clipping coupons isn’t your strong point, making sure that you’re shopping smart and eating food before it goes bad is a good starting point.

The Seven Essential Rules For Healthy Weight Gain


Today, there are huge numbers of people who try to lose weight. What is much rarer are those who actually want to gain weight. Still, there are legitimate reasons to gain weight. Some people are actually underweight, while others want to become more muscular. It might seem that gaining weight should be a straightforward process with no health risks, but that isn’t so. If you want to gain weight, you must do so the right way. Follow the seven following rules.


  1. Don’t eat indiscriminately. You might assume that wishing to gain weight means you can eat whatever you want, in whatever amount. However, eating indiscriminately will always harm your health. Foods that are unhealthy remain unhealthy no matter your weight goals. Wanting to gain weight is no excuse to down lots of chips, cookies, or other junk foods.


  1. Prioritize high-quality protein. Even if gaining strength is not one of your primary reasons for adding pounds, at least some of the weight you gain must be from muscle. Adding only fat would be very unhealthy. Protein forms an essential part of the structure of muscle, and consuming plenty of protein is needed to grow muscles. Prioritize high-quality, nutritious proteins such as chicken, tuna, beans, nuts, and eggs.


  1. Eat high-quality fats and carbohydrates. As important as protein is, you will also need to consume plenty of fats and carbs. The key is to ensure those fats and carbs come from healthy sources. Some of the best fat-rich foods to eat include olive oil, nuts, peanut butter, and dairy products. As for carbohydrates, some of the top nutritious options include oatmeal, brown rice, potatoes, and beans.


  1. Limit intense aerobic exercise. Cardio workouts, like all exercise, are good for you, and there’s certainly no sense in giving up aerobic exercise entirely. However, intense cardio workouts do burn up a lot of calories. Since gaining weight depends upon maintaining a caloric surplus, doing lots and lots of demanding aerobic workouts can get in the way of your goal.


  1. Eat dense foods. If you eat mostly light, insubstantial foods, you will have to consume enormous amounts of food to actually gain weight. Instead, opt for lots of energy-rich, calorically-dense foods — anything that has a lot of calories for its size and weight. Some of the most nutritious options include nuts, meat, oils, and dairy products.


  1. Eat often. It’s easier to consume a lot of food if your food consumption is spread out over time. Consuming just one or two large meals a day while trying to gain weight probably won’t work. Have at least three meals a day — no skipping. Eating smaller snacks or meals in addition isn’t a bad idea either. Sneaking in extra calories whenever possible can help a lot.


  1. Practice strength training. The biggest risk in putting on weight is that the extra pounds will manifest primarily as fat. Strength training is necessary to ensure you are adding significant muscle as well. Even if strength workouts have not previously been a part of your exercise routine, you should start practicing them at least three times a week.


A desire to gain weight can’t be taken as a license to eat without discipline. You need to make sure the pounds you are adding on are healthy pounds. Exercising the right way is similarly crucial to ensuring your weight gain is healthy. Follow the seven rules from this article and you will be sure to gain weight properly.

Seven Practical Tips For Setting Fitness Goals


Staying motivated in the realm of fitness and exercise is all about progression. To make progress, you need to set yourself goals. For most people, goals are what keep them inspired and driven. Here are seven essential tips for setting your own great fitness goals.


  1. Be sure the goal is reasonable. If you set a bar that’s too high for yourself, you are only setting yourself up for disappointment. Falling short of a goal is dispiriting. You don’t want something that’s supposed to motivate you to have the opposite effect. So, be realistic about your abilities and choose a goal that’s practical.


  1. Challenge yourself. On the flip side of the coin, you also don’t want to go to easy on yourself. There’s no point in a goal that won’t really test you. You won’t feel that you have truly accomplished anything if you reach your goal too easily. While you should generally be able to reach your goals, the occasional failure is proof you are truly challenging yourself.


  1. Be specific. Vague goals are nearly worthless. If all you want is to be stronger, faster, or be in better shape, then you haven’t set a genuine benchmark for yourself. Your goal should be concrete and (if possible) measurable so that you really know what you are working towards achieving. For example, aim to run a mile in a specific time, lift a certain amount of weight, or reach a certain body fat percentage.


  1. Make a training plan. The goal you are trying to reach is the outcome — but that still leaves the question of how you will actually achieve that outcome. You need a process by which you will succeed — that’s where your training plan comes in. If you aren’t sure how to best reach your goal, do some research or follow a plan created by a fitness expert.


  1. Choose a time frame. If your goal isn’t at all time-bound, you won’t feel any real pressure towards actually achieving it. You don’t necessarily have to look at your time frame as a hard deadline — but it is important to have some kind of idea of when you are aiming to reach your goal.


  1. Set smaller goals. A major goal can be intimidating — where to even begin? For this reason it’s wise to have one large, overarching goal that can then be divided into smaller goals accomplishable in a short period. Try to have goals you are aiming towards each day and each week. Reaching these small goals will boost your motivation.


  1. Track your progress. Your goal probably won’t help much if you don’t monitor your performance. Tracking progress is how you hold yourself accountable. Your smaller daily and weekly goals can be useful in tracking your progress. Using apps or creating an exercise log are also useful.


As in just about every area of life, success in the world of exercise depends upon knowing how to set and reach goals. Be sure not to overlook or forget the importance of this key aspect of fitness.

The Benefits of Teaching Your Children How to Cook


All children should learn how to cook. There are several reasons why this is an important life skill to learn and continue to develop. When children are young, there is a concern regarding the use of heat from the stove or oven. You are very wise in that concern. However, remember not all food preparation uses heat. Young children are curious and eager for knowledge. Feed that curiosity and give them the knowledge that will benefit them for years to come.


Your child will grow up whether you want them to or not (sorry!). To help them maintain a healthy diet once they have moved away from home, teach them to prepare healthy meals. This is a good time to help them create their very own cookbook. Encourage them to add recipes that they enjoy to their cookbook. Many children that move away from home to go to college or begin their new jobs, starting a life of their own will turn to eating very unhealthy fast foods simply because they do not know how to cook.


The time spent in the kitchen cooking with your child not only helps them to develop essential life skills, it also strengthens the bonds between you and that child.  Learning to cook as a child offers the ability to acquire and develop so many more essential life skills than just cooking. There are instructions on measuring, division, addition, subtraction, counting, fractions, weights and measures, and science. Reading and writing skills are developed or improved with reading of the recipes and writing them for their very own cookbook.


Knowing how to prepare great meals also boosts your child’s confidence. Confidence in their ability to cook can also help to improve their self-esteem. They exhibit a lot of pride serving the foods they cooked themselves. By having the skills of cooking great food the child, will have the confidence perhaps to invite newly made acquaintances and friends over for a dinner once they move to a place of their own? Hosting dinners and events helps to develop organizational and social skills.


Sadly, another reason to teach your child to cook, especially the boys would be to prevent them from jumping into a relationship or marriage simply to have someone to cook and clean for them. It does seem silly ever to believe that they might do this, but it does happen.


Your child can begin learning when they are a toddler. Measuring our ingredients prior to beginning to cook will allow your child to add the ingredient as you need them. Start with the dry ingredients such as those for making cookies or cakes. This gives them a sense of pride as they watch them bake and see others enjoy their creations. As your child grows and masters each new skill, give praise and then add to their skill set. When you begin to teach them at a young age, by the time they do grow up and move away, they will have the skills necessary to navigate the new life they are beginning by themselves.

Pizza Lettuce Wraps




2 Table Spoons hoisin sauce

1 Table Spoon Soya Sauce

1 Table Spoon Chili Sauce

1 Tea Spoon Brown Sugar

1 Tea Spoon Garlic Chopped

1 Tea Spoon Ginger Chopped

Lettuce Leaves

Mozzarella Cheese

Cheddar Cheese


Oregano Leaves

Oil as Required

Half Cup Green Onions

1 Onion Chopped

250 grams of chicken cubes


Prepare Sauce:

Mix hoisin sauce, Soya Sauce, Chili Sauce, Brown Sugar, Garlic, Ginger.


Chicken Preparation:

Stir the chicken in oil add green onions, onions and the prepared sauce to it.



Take fresh lettuce leaves put 2-3 tablespoon of prepared chicken spread mozzarella and Cheddar cheese over it. Sprinkle oregano Leaves on it and top it with olives.


Steam the chicken 3 minutes each and they are ready to serve.



Food Guide Pyramid

  • Food Guide Pyramid:-
    Food guides as the food guide pyramid (USDA) are tools used for teaching complex scientific information in a consumer friendly way. The governments use pictures and graphs to communicate dietary guidance messages.

    The food pyramid guide gives a simple and complete message to what one needs to eat in a day. It advocates balance of nutrients and reduction of fat. It provides guidance to improving overall health and weight management. Foods are divided into five distinct “food groups” and eating a given number of servings from each group is recommended. The base of pyramid is bread, cereal, rice and pasta group. It is the base so the biggest. The next step up is the vegetable and fruit group which provides vitamin A, ascorbic acid, folate, and fiber as well as potassium. This is the second biggest group. Next comes milk, yogurt, and cheese group which provides calcium, protein, vitamin A and D. Along with milk group is the meat, fish dry beans, eggs and nuts group. This group provides iron, zinc, B vitamins and proteins. The tip of the pyramid is fats, oils, and sweets. These foods need to be consumed sparingly as they are source of calories with almost no other nutrients. Each of the food groups provide some of the nutrients, but not all the nutrients required by the body. Foods found in one group cannot replace foods in another group. All the five groups are important in order to make the diet balanced.

    Using Food Guide Pyramid:-

  • Choose the number of servings required. The pyramid gives a range of servings and the number of servings required by an individual depends on the number of Calories required. Everyone should make an effort to take at least the minimum servings each group.
  • The amount that counts as serving is given below:
    1 slice of bread, 1 ounce of read-to-eat cereal, 1& ½ cup of cooked cereal, rice or pasta.
  • 1 cup of raw leafy vegetables; 1& 1/2 cup of other vegetables; cooked or chopped raw vegetables; ¾ cup of vegetable juice.
  • 1& ½ cup of chopped, cooked, or canned fruit; 1&3/4 cup of fruit juice.
  • 1 cup of milk or yogurt 1-1&1/2 ounces of natural cheese; 1 2 ounces of processes cheese.
  • Include plant foods that are good sources of protein such as beans, legumes and nuts several times a week.
  • Include a dark green leafy vegetable as a source of vitamin A and a good source of vitamin C such as citrus fruit daily.
  • Include milk and products to provide calcium.
  • Choose whole grain cereals, breads, and rice as they are good source of fiber and vitamin E.
  • Include some plant oils daily and fish once or twice a week to include unsaturated fatty acids in the diet.

Bacon And Sausage Egg Casserole

  1. Healthy Food Recipes!

    Bacon And Sausage Egg Casserole


100g Brown Sausage

100g chopped bacon

1 chopped onion

1 red pepper chopped

1 green pepper chopped

Salt to taste

Black pepper to taste

1 cup regular potatoes boiled

2 table spoon butter

6 eggs

2 table spoon milk

Fresh basil

Cheese to cover the top


Assembling and Cooking Process:

In a pan add chopped sausages and bacon! Stir them evenly, the fat from the sausages and bacon will sit on the pan from that from pan and stir again evenly.

Once the sausages and bacon are stried evenly add chopped onions to the pan and both red and green pepper cut into bite sized pieces.

Season the mixture with salt and black pepper. Add in the boiled potatoes cut into cubes. Add butter cubes to the potatoes to give extra golden colour on the potatoes. Make the surface of your pan even and nice cover the pan with lid and steam off the mixture.

In a separate bowl break 6 eggs and hand beat them with milk evenly to give it a nice soft texture. Season the eggs with salt and black pepper now with that add fresh basil to the eggs.

Pour in your eggs to the sausages and bacon mixture add a generous amount of cheese for the eggs to seep in completely.

Cover your man and baked the mixture for about 20 minutes at 350° in your oven!


Dish out your sausage and bacon mixture and serve with sour cream!

Human Immuno -deficiency Virus


As you may recall, a virus is a microscopic parasite that attacks and infects various tissues of our body. It gets its nourishment from our tissues and multiplies countless times causing a variety of ailments.
There are many viruses that infect humans, Some cause only mild illness, for example, those which are responsible for causing cold. There are other viruses, which are deadly; the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the deadly ones.
Our blood contains T cells which are white cells, which protect our body from infections. HIV invades the T cells, impairing the normal function of the T cells, which is to protect the body from other microorganisms present in the body. Persons, who have a healthy immune system, are thus protected from invaders by the T cells.
HIV positive are those who are infected by HIV virus. If not treated effectively in the early stages, HIV infection ultimately progresses to an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which is incurable and fatal.



Transmission of HIV Infection
So far there is no cure for HIV infections, but it can be prevented. It can affect anyone of any age and sex, who is exposed to it. It is not transmitted through casual contact such as shaking hands. It is transmitted through body fluids such as

  • Sexual contact
  • By transfusion of contaminated blood
  • By the use of contaminated needles during ear piercing, tattooing, acupuncture, or injection of illegal drugs.
  • By infected mothers to their fetuses on pregnancy or to their infants during breast feeding


Advancement from HIV to AIDS:

  • This occurs in three stages. Soon after exposure to HIV, the body produces antibodies in an attempt to destroy the virus. Some persons may have symptoms like mild flu others may have no symptoms for a few months to every ten years. At this stage, the person will know that he/she is HIV positive only if tested
    Nutrition in Immune Dysfunction, AIDS and Allergy

    In the first dormant stage, the virus which is incubating, multiplies in various parts e.g tonsils, adenoid glands and spleen and destroys the T cells. If a person suspects that he/she is exposed to HIV, early detection helps to start treatment, which can prolong life, as the treatment may delay the action of the virus. Good nutrition at this stage helps to increase body’s ability to delay action of the virus.In the second stage, infected persons, who are undetected and therefore not treated, suffer from damage to their immune system. Infections occur, which may result in a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, headache, oral infections, cough, sore throat, fevers, shortness, the body succumbs.

    Nutrition in HIV Infection
    A healthful, nutritious diet ensures a healthy immune system, which may delay the progression of HIV infection to AIDS.
    When a person is diagnosed as HIV positive, it is important to assess the nutritional status of the person. At this early stage, any unhealthy dietary habits can be corrected with a dietitian’s guidance and the importance of meeting future nutritional needs emphasised to help the action of the body to resist the action of the virus.

    As the condition progresses, patient may begin to suffer some of the problems listed above. The metabolic rate, nutrient and energy needs increase due to infections, while the appetite and ability to absorb nutrients may decrease. Medicines given may cause nausea and reduce the appetite. Taste may change, swallowing may be painful due to oral infection. These difficulties may result in the malnutrition, such as protein-energy malnutrition and hence loss of weight.

    To improve the appetite of the patient, there are several things the dietitian can do, such as


  • Offer soft food.
  • Serve frequent small meals.
  • Offer food the patient tolerates.
  • Add sugar and flavourings to improve acceptability of liquid supplements.
  • Avoid extremely hot or cold foods, spicy or acidic foods.
  • Give medicines after meals.
  • Talk to the patient to help him/her unburden worries about family, friends and finances.





Meal Planning is the making of a plan of meals with adequate nutrition for every member of the family within the available resources. The term available resources mean whatever the family has in the terms of time, energy and money.

We usually call it our “daily food guide”.
1. Fulfil the nutritional requirements of family members
2. Make the food economical.
3. Cater to the food preferences of individual members.
4. Save energy, time and money.
5. Use leftover food.

1. Nutritional Adequacy:
This is the most important factor as for the nutritional requirements of the entire family is fulfilled, While planning meals food items from various food groups should include energy giving foods, body building foods and protective and regulating foods.
2. Age:
People normally eat according to their age. The diet of various members of different age groups differs in quantity, and quality as for the new born diet will surely vary from that of both adults and older adult.

3. Sex:
sex is another factor which determine the dietary intake. Dietary requirement of adolescent and adult males are more than their female counterparts.

  1. Physical Activity:
    The kind of work a person does affects the kind and amount of food they need to take. The RDA is different for people engaged in different activities as for the labor will need more energy compare to the sedentary male doing office work which may differ for a household or pregnant woman and growing children.5: Economic consideration:
    Money available to the family to be spent on food is another major factor. Foods like milk, cheese, meat, fruits nuts, etc are expensive, However alternative sources like toned milk, seasonal food, fruits and vegetables are less expensive and at the same time nutritious one can therefore plan a balanced diet to suit every budget (consider compare prices from different markets)6: Time, energy and skill considerations:
    While planning the meals you should consider the resources like time, energy and skills available to the family. Meals can be elaborate with different dishes but you can simply simple by cooking in a plain but nutritious way.7: Seasonal Availability:
    The off season foods are expensive and less nutritious while those in the season are fresh, nutritious, tasty and cheap hence, while planning seasonal foods should be used.8: Religion, region, cultural patterns, traditions and customs:
    All of these factor influence meal planning and they determine the staple food, Religious beliefs prevalent in the family also have an influence, and thus determine the nutritional intake of an individual.

    9: Variety in color and texture:
    Variety in terms of color, texture, flavor and method of preparation. These factor helps make meals more appealing, attractive and hence more acceptable.

    10: Likes and dislike of individuals:
    The food you serve should cater to the likes and dislikes of the individuals. It is better to change the form of some particularly nutritious food item, rather than omitting it completely. Modify the food to suit the needs of individuals.

    11: Satiety value:
    While planning meals take care that you select foods which provide value. Meals which produce inadequate satiety will lead to onset of hunger pangs, which in return will affect the working capacity and efficiency of a person.


In planning meals, the following factors should be considered:
1: Nutritional adequacy – or the provision of palatable foods that are rich in essential nutrients, Nutrient needs of an individual are affected  by age, sex, body built, and activities engaged by the individual.

2: The Food Budget: The food budget is influenced by the family income, knowledge of the market shopper’s shopping skills, family food likes and dislikes, and their goals and values.

3: Differences in the food habits: These include the dietary habits of nationality groups, regional food patterns, cultural and religious food patterns, and the socioeconomic background.

4: The time and skill of the meal manager: The length of meal preparation, the amount of experience, and the time available are to be considered.

5: Suitability, Availability, and the quality of the food to be served.

6: Aesthetic and psychological aspects of food or the proper combination of flavor, texture and shapes as well as variety in color, form, and arrangement.

7: Equipment available for food preparation.


Here are some basic principles to make sure that the meal planned will be pleasing. The principles are in the form of a question checklist. After a menu is drawn up, these questions must be asked to see whether or not some important considerations have been overlooked.

1: Are the foods contrasting in color
         Dishes which are all pale or all dark or are of the same color must be avoided.

2: Is there variety in texture
Some of the foods should be soft, smooth or liquid, while others should be firm or crunchy.

3: Is there variety in the main ingredients
Repetition of a certain kind of meat or vegetable must be avoided. Likewise, using all dried, canned, heavy, or long-cooked foods should not be done. Some fresh, crisp, bland or briefly cooked food must be included.

4: Is there variety in the sauces seasonings
One should not serve the same kind of sauce for more than one dish.   There must be no repetition of dominant flavors of vinegar, garlic, soya sauce, ginger or other distinctive seasonings. Some dishes should be pungently seasoned, others blandly.

5: Are there too much last minute cooking
It is especially important that much work, shortly before guests arrive or while they are being served, be avoided, Lack of experience at a certain type of cooking, may require more time than one imagined for seemingly easy tasks.

6: Have you planned too many dishes or too many complicated or new dishes
Meals must be kept simple. More than one or two dishes that require new cooking techniques to the cook must not be tried. Everything that can be done ahead of time must be done. An early start is advisable and last minute preparations must be altogether avoided.

The 10 Best Must-Have Health-Tech Gadgets for 2020


The 10 Best Must-Have Health-Tech Gadgets for 2020

Even though lockdown and social distancing restrictions have fundamentally altered our way of life, technological innovation keeps pressing onward. This year, there are a number of incredible health-tech gadgets that you will want to get your hands on. We’ve put together a list of the best health-tech devices for 2020, so that you can save yourself the headache of researching what tech gadgets to get for improving your life.

Here’s our list of the best must-have health-tech gadgets for 2020:


A similar concept to the Apple Watch, but more specific in its function, Glutrac is a wearable blood glucose monitor. Instead of needing to prick your finger to get to your blood, which you then have to get onto an expensive paper strip, Glutrac is non-invasive. You can now measure your blood sugar levels quickly and painlessly.

Thanks to AI technology, Glutrac can estimate your blood glucose levels with incredible accuracy. This is a very novel technology that comes packaged in the form of a smartwatch. You can also get other vital signs, such as your heart rate. The embedded sensors log health data at 15 minute intervals. You also get finger sensors that will let you get real-time readings. The data gets sent to the cloud, where it is analyzed, and you are provided with accurate measurements.

YO Sperm Test

Infertility is a growing problem in the US and around the world. Today, people have to make an appointment with a doctor, go to see them, and then wait for tests to come back showing whether they are fertile or not. That’s no longer the only option. Now, you can test to see whether you are fertile by using the YO Sperm Test.

This is the world’s first at-home method of testing progesterone, using a high-tech device and urine test. The gadget will measure whether your progesterone levels are high or low. Now, knowing whether you are able to have children is as simple as taking a test for fertility at home using this device. There’s even a neat feature where you can see your actual sperm on video.

Bisu Body Coach

Another reason you had to previously go through the lengthy process of going to the doctor and getting results was to take a urine test. That is no longer necessary, thanks to Bisu. This is an at-home test that will check how hydrated you are, what your electrolyte levels are, how many ketones you have, and what your dietary acid load is. It’s a convenient way to get results using a small and simple device.

Withings ScanWatch

Not all smartwatches need to look futuristic and hi-tech. Withings has come out with a classic-looking smartwatch called the ScanWatch. This device features an electrocardiogram that can find out whether you have arrhythmia. It can also measure what your blood oxygen levels are. It also features a monitor for continuously checking for any atrial fibrillation. If you want a traditional-style watch that is as smart as other smartwatches, this is a great option.

Heart Hero

The Heart Hero is a conveniently-sized atrial defibrillator. It is portable enough to keep at home and have on standby for use in unexpected cardiac events. Thanks to the advanced AI technology powering it, emergency services will be contacted as soon as there is a problem registered on the device. It will determine whether there is a heartbeat. If there is none, it will let out a shock to ensure a life can be saved.


Mateo is a “smart” bath mat that does more than just dry off your feet and keep them warm. Thanks to the technological advances it has made to the traditional bathroom mat, it can track your weight, and body type, as well as identify how good your posture is. Think of this mat like a scale, but instead of displaying information on the mat itself, it sends it off to your smartphone.


The MedWand is a small device that features 10 different kinds of functions for diagnosing medical issues. This makes it very useful in telemedicine, where a doctor can examine a patient remotely. There are a number of attachments for diagnosing different issues. Some of them include ones for the heart, lungs, blood-oxygen levels, nose, throat, mouth, and others.

Tivic Health ClearUp

This device is designed to get rid of sinus pain, which is usually caused by allergy-induced inflammation. By holding it against your cheekbone for a few moments, moving it around a bit by your nose, you get a barely-noticeable microcurrent sent into your sinuses. It will even vibrate to let you know when it’s time to move it to another area. The electrical stimulation of certain nerves can inhibit pain that is usually associated with inflamed sinuses.

The Wave

The Wave is a wearable device that looks like a smartwatch, but is a little different. Developed by Embr Labs, it is touted as the world’s first thermal wellness tech business. This particular gadget is a smart bracelet, in that it will make you feel either 5 degrees Fahrenheit hotter or colder. That could be very useful in many situations. Consider it like your very own personal thermostat.

Sana Health

Sana is a novel kind of neuromodulation device that looks a little bit like VR goggles. It makes use of pulsed light and sound in the goal of eliminating the persistent chronic pain that people suffering from fibromyalgia have to deal with. Thanks to this device, people with this condition have seen their symptoms go from being severe to just mild within a span of two weeks.



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